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“Millimetron” observatory (“Spektr-M” project) with a 10-meter space telescope is designed to study various objects in the Universe at millimeter and infrared wavelengths from 0.02 to 17 mm. The observatory has two operational modes – the single-dish and Space-Earth interferometer modes. In the first mode observations are carried out with maximum sensitivity, which can be achieved using the on-board detectors of radiation from space objects. The second mode is aimed to solve scientific problems that require ultra-high resolution, up to tens of billionths of a second of arc.

High sensitivity is achieved by deep cooling of the telescope mirror system and on-board scientific payload. While, high angular resolution is provided by the orbit configuration. The observatory is located near the Lagrange point L2, located at 1.5 million kilometers from Earth in the anti-solar direction.

Russian Federation leads the project. It is included in the "Russian Federal Space Program, for 2006-2015 years", as well as in the Russian Federal Space Program for 2016-2025 years".

The prime contractor for the space complex development is Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Lavochkin Research and Production Association". The prime contractor for the scientific equipment development is Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences and its main accomplice – JSC “Information Satellite Systems - Reshetnev Company”, which is responsible for the design of space telescope construction, assembly and testing of the scientific payload.

Other organizations involved in the development of “Millimetron” space observatory are listed here.